Types of Cements based on Indian Standards
1. Ordinary Portland Cement-It is further classified into three types-33 Grade pertaining to IS 269:1989, 43Grade pertaining to IS 8112:1989, 53Grade pertaining to IS 12269:1987.Commonly referred as OPC, it is the most important type of cement.33Grade signifies that 28 days strength of the cement will not be less than 33N/mm2 and similarly for other grades as well. It is not in much use by masses today and had been replaced by other cement called PPC (Portland Pozzolana Cement). Still, it is used in construction activities of large scale.
2. Rapid Hardening Cement-It is pertaining to IS 8041:1990.The name is itself an explanation of the nature of the cement i.e. it gets hardened at a very rapid pace. Apart from rapid hardening it also develops high strength at an early stage than OPC. Used in pre-fabricated concrete construction works or at places where formwork has to be removed for reuse at fast rate or sometimes in road repair works too.
3. Sulphate Resisting Cement- It is pertaining to IS 12330:1988.OPC is vulnerable to the attack of sulphates, so as the name indicates it resist easily to sulphate attacks. Thus it find its use in concreting done in marine conditions or in concrete foundation beneath which soil contain sulphate’s compounds or sometimes in sewage treatment works too.
4. Portland Slag Cement-It is pertaining to IS 455:1989.This type of cement is manufactured by mixing Portland cement and Ground Granulated Blast Slag in suitable proportions. The resultant cement is more resistant to chemical attacks. It is thus generally used in water retaining structures or where structure is vulnerable to any form of chemical attack.
5. Super Sulphated Cement-It is pertaining to IS 6909:1990.This cement is like sulphate resistance cement but with higher percentage of granulated slag, higher sulphate resistance and fineness higher than that of OPC. It is mostly used in Belgium and recommended for used in foundation works (or sea works) where very high degree of sulphate resistance is required.
6. Low Heat Cement-It is pertaining to IS 12600-1989.It has low heat of hydration. High Heat of hydration is responsible for building cracks in the structure. Thus it finds its use in massive construction work.
7. Portland Pozzolana Cement- It is pertaining to IS 1489 (Part I) 1991 (fly ash based) and IS 1489 (Part II) (calcined clay based). PPC is obtained by mixing OPC with suitable Pozzolans at a certain temperature to produce PPC. Pozzolans are materials that are said to show similar properties as that of cement when they comes in contact with water. It is very popular now days and used by masses for all general construction activities.
8. Coloured Cement-It is pertaining to IS 8042:1989. As per IS code it is white but can be turned to any colour by adding suitable coloured pigments in OPC or PPC. It is manufactured from limestone that is available only near Jodhpur in India. It is use to aesthetically enhance the structure appearance and finish
9. Hydrophobic Cement-It is pertaining to IS 8043-1991.It is manufactured by grinding together OPC clinker with substances such as oleic acid or stearic acid that are famous for their film forming nature. It reduces the rate of deterioration of cement and thus gives long storage life to cement.
10. Masonry Cement-It is pertaining to IS 3466:1988. As the name suggest, it is used for masonry works in and have properties resembling to lime mortar instead of cement mortar. It is manufactured using certain admixtures.
11. Oil Well Cement-It is pertaining to IS 8229-1986. It is used in the oil wells. This cement is so manufactured using special set of admixtures so as to withstand high temperature and pressure inside the oil wells while maintaining its mobility.
12. Concrete Sleeper Grade Cement-It is pertaining to IRS-T 40:1985. It is special cement and is manufactured as specifications formulated by Indian Railways. Particularly used in concrete sleepers but can also be put forth use in prestressed concrete elements or high rise building where high early strength is required.
13. High Alumina Cement-It is pertaining to IS 6452:1989.It is the cement with very high content of alumina and having a unique property of extensively high rate of strength development.
Note:-IS is Indian Standards Code that laid down specifications in framed structure so as to standardized the nature of building material and practices.
Types of Cements based on ASTM (American Society for Testing Materials) Standards
1. Type I- Used in common concrete construction work wherein properties mentioned in Type I,II,III,IV and V are not required.OPC
2. Type II-Used in common concrete construction having exposure to mild sulphate action or where low heat of hydration is required.
3. Type III-Used wherein high early strength is required.
4. Type IV-Used wherein low heat of hydration is required.
5. Type V-Used wherein high sulphate resistance is necessary.
6. Type IP- Similar to PPC having pozzolana content in between 15-40% by weight.
Type IA, IIA and IIIA- These are cement with air entraining agents to impart higher workability and permeability characteristics to concrete.
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